I am a researcher in Computer Science; my research topic is distributed
systems (i.e., interconnected computers working together).
My two current projects are:
- Understanding replication and
Replication is an essential feature of a distributed system, but
updates cause the issue of consistency between replicas.
Strong consistency is easy to understand but expensive (and
impossible if there are failures); weaker models are complex.
Rather than pre-defined consistency models, we propose a “Just-Right
Consistency” approach, tailoring the consistency protocol to
specific application requirements, and using static verification to
ensure that the application remains correct.
- Concurrent programming.
Programming concurrent programs with shared memory is incredibly
bug-prone, yet (with multi-core processors) increasingly relevant.
Fine-grain concurrency is especially challenging.
I am particularly interested in garbage collection for managed
runtime environments on large-scale many-core computers.
This is related to my previous work on distributed garbage collection.
I am Distinguished Research Scholar (Emeritus) of Inria, the French National Institute for
Computer Science and Control Science.
I am part of Delys, a joint group
between Inria and LIP6 (the Computer
Science laboratory of Sorbonne Université,
previously UPMC, previously Paris-6) in Paris.
I previously led the Cambridge
Distributed Systems Group (Camdis)
at Microsoft Research
Cambridge (MSRC), from October 1998 to March 2005.
For several years before that I was the leader of Inria's SOR (Systèmes d'objets
répartis, Distributed Object Systems)
I am a member of the Program Committee of EuroSys 2020 and previously of
EuroSys 2019 and PODC 2019.
I served from 2012 to 2018 on the “Informatics and Computer Science”
panel of the European Research Council
I am VP for Research of Société
Informatique de France, the French learned society in Informatics.
I am past member of the ACM Europe
I am the past chair of EuroSys, the European professional society
in Computer Systems, which I was instrumental in creating.
(EuroSys is is the European chapter of SIGOPS.)
Marc Shapiro is a
Distinguished Research Scholar (DR0, Emeritus) in the Delys group of
Sorbonne-Université-LIP6 and Inria.
His research topics concern distributed computer systems, data
replication and consistency algorithms, and multicore algorithms. He
leads the SyncFree European
project for highly-available cloud computing and storage, developing the
He is the co-inventor of Conflict-free
Replicated Data Types (CRDTs) designed to reconcile availability and
He invented the proxy concept,
which is now universal on the Internet.
Dr Shapiro's career started with a PhD in Toulouse (U. Paul Sabatier and
LAAS), followed by a post-doc at MIT, research positions at CMIRH and Inria, and a
sabbatical at Cornell.
He is an author of 100
international publications, some in the most prestigious venues, 18
recognised software systems, and six patents.
He led the Cambridge Distributed Systems group at Microsoft
Research Cambridge (UK) for six years.
Dr. Shapiro, a Senior Member
of the ACM, is known for his dedication to
organising the Informatics community and making its voice heard in
He has been a member of several Program Commitees in operating systems,
distributed systems, persistent systems, and garbage collection.
Recent examples include:
Ongoing research grants and collaborative projects:
Founder and member of Steering Committee for the Workshop on
Principles and Practice of Consistency, since 2015.
Programme Committee member of the European Conference on Computer
Systems (EuroSys) in 2020
PC member for the ACM Symposium on Principles
of Distributed Computing (PODC) 2019.
Co-organiser of the Dagstuhl
Seminar on Data Consistency in Distributed Systems: Algorithms,
Programs, and Databases, Feb. 2018.
Member of the “Computer Science and Informatics” selection panel (PE6)
for the ERC
Consolidator Grants for 2012, 2014, 2016, and for the ERC
Starting Grants in 2018.
- PC member of ASPLOS 2017.
PC Co-chair of the 2014 Conference on the Principles of
Distributed Systems (OPODIS), with Marcos
PC co-chair (with Nuno Preguiça) of
the W. on Principles
Practice of Eventual Consistency (PaPEC) 2014.
PC member of OPODIS 2013
and OPODIS 2016.
Co-Organiser of the Dagstuhl
Seminar on Consistency in Distributed Systems, Feb. 2013.
Co-organiser of the Dagstuhl
Seminar on Security and Dependability for Federated
Platforms, Jul. 2012.
PC co-Chair for LADIS
2010 (with Marcos
April 2023: project “Safe composition of distributed off-the-shelf
components,” with Ahmed
Bouajjani of IRIF, is
funded by Amazon Research
Awards grant of USD 78,000, as an unrestricted gift, with an
additional USD 10,000 in AWS credits.
(French) ANR Project Adecods, 2019-10-01 to 2024-03-31.
(ANR stands for
Agence Nationale de la Recherche, the research funding agency of
the French government.)
If you are interested in a PhD, send me a note.
You will need to demonstrate a strong academic record, real scientific
curiosity to explore the leading edge of technology and algorithms, and interest in research topics such as
distributed systems, distributed algorithms, replication and consistency,
databases, concurrent programming, etc.
(French) ANR Project RainbowFS, Feb. 2017 to April 2022.
CIFRE (industrial PhD grant) with Orange Labs, on distributed data in a telecommunications database, awarded to
Jonathan Sid-Otmane (2017–2020).
CIFRE (industrial PhD grant) with Scality, on “Scalable indexing for large-scale distributed storage
systems”, awarded to
Dimitrios Vasilas (2017–2020).
(European) H2020 Project LightKone, 2017--2020.
CIFRE (industrial PhD grant) with Scality, on "CRDTs for large-scale storage,"
awarded to Tao Thanh
- The SyncFree EU project
(FP7 Strep) 2013–2016 aims to develop technologies for
highly-scalable geo-replicated computation and storage.
Building upon CRDTs, its academic
contributions include the planet-scale database AntidoteDB,
Consistency approach to tailoring consistency to application
requirements, the distributed programming language LASP,
and the framework for in-browser data sharing Legion.
Industrial outcomes include Basho's BigSet
technology, and ESL's WombatOAM
tool for system operations, administration and management.
The Euro-TM EU COST action on
"Transactional Memories: Foundations, Algorithms, Tools, and
- The ConcoRDanT ANR
project (2010—2013) aims to study commutative replicated data types,
a principled approach to eventual consistency.
- The Streams ANR project
(2010—2014) studies peer-to-peer, real-time collaboration.
- The Prose
ANR project (2009—2012) studies the sharing of
mutable content (e.g., a shared wiki) over opportunistic communication.
- PhD student Marek Zawirski received a Google
European Doctoral Fellowship towards his PhD on “Theory and
practice of shared data types for cloud computing”.
Optimising Coordination in Concurrent and Geo-Distributed Systems
Started March 2022.
Co-advisors: Marc Shapiro, Julien Sopena, Swan Dubois.
Varda: a language for programming distributed systems by
Defended September 2023.
Funded by a competitive Inria PhD grant CORDI-S.
Co-advisors: Mesaac Makpangou and Ahmed Bouajjani.
Leveraging formal specification to implement a database backend
Defended June 2023.
TTCC: Transactional-Turn Causal Consistency
Defended April 2023.
Co-advisor: Mesaac Makpangou.
Ilyas Toumlilt (Defended Dec. 2021).
Colony: A Hybrid Consistency System for Highly-Available
Collaborative Edge Computing.
Funded by LightKone and RainbowFS.
Currently at Critéo.
A study of data consistency constraints in 5G, applied to limiting resource usage in network slices.
Co-advised with Sofiane Imadali and
Frédéric Martelli, Orange Labs.
CIFRE industrial PhD, defended Nov. 2021.
Currently R&D Software Engineer at Lumen Technologies.
Thesis: Designing safe and highly available distributed applications.
Defended June 2021.
Winner of Séphora
Berrebi Scholarship for Women in Advanced Mathematics &
Computer Science 2020.
Funded by LightKone and RainbowFS.
Currently Senior Replication Engineer at Ditto.
Thesis: A flexible and decentralised approach to query processing for geo-distributed data systems.
CIFRE industrial PhD, co-advised with Brad King, Scality.
Defended February 2021.
Now Research Engineer at Scality, Paris, France.
Francis Laniel defended Nov. 2020.
Thesis: MemOpLight : Vers une consolidation mémoire pour les conteneurs grâce à un retour applicatif.
Funded by a competitive grant from EDITE/Sorbonne-Université.
Now Embedded System Developer at Amarula Solutions (Amsterdam,
Alejandro Z. Tomsic (defended April 2018)
Thesis: Exploring the design space of highly-available distributed transactions.
Prize for Best French PhD in systems and networking 2019,
awarded by ASF and RSD.
Currently Founder of Sick Tom Toms Music.
Tao Thanh Vinh,
co-advised with Vianney Rancurel, defended Dec. 2017.
Thesis: Ensuring Availability and Managing Consistency in
Geo-Replicated File Systems.
Currently Engagement Backend Engineer at SmartNews, Inc.
Najafzadeh (April 2016).
Thesis: The Analysis and Co-design of weakly-consistent
Now Senior Software Engineer at Microsoft.
Lokesh Gidra, co-advised with
Gaël Thomas and Julien Sopena.
Thesis: Garbage Collector for memory intensive applications on NUMA
architectures, September 2015.
Now Senior Software Engineer at Google.
Thesis: Dependable Eventual Consistency with Replicated Data Types,
Now Staff Software Engineer at Google, Zurichr.
Masoud Saeida Ardekani,
co-advised with Pierre
Thesis: Ensuring Consistency in Partially Replicated Data Stores, 2014.
Senior Software Engineer for Google Cloud, Silicon Valley,
Pierpaolo Cincilla, co-advised with
Thesis: Gargamel : accroître les performances des DBMS en parallélisant
les transactions en écriture, 2014.
Quality engineer connected vehicles and mobility services at
Thesis: Efficient Protocols for Generalized Consensus and Partial
Assistant Professor at Télécom Paris-Sud.
Stratégies de gestion mémoire dans les mémoires d'objets
persistantes automatiques partitionnées, 2002.
Fabrice le Fessant,
co-advised with Jean-Jacques Lévy.
“JoCaml : conception et implémentation d'un langage à
agents mobiles”, 2001.
Researcher at Inria Paris.
“Gestion mémoire dans PERDIS, un environnement réparti
persistant à grande échelle”, 2000.
Head of R&D Department, Senior Software Architect at ACA.
“Objets distribués adaptables pour environnements
Technical Product Consultant at TOPdesk and free-lance photographer.
Georges Brun-Cottan, 1998.
“Cohérence de données repliquées partagées par un groupe de
processus coopérant à distance”.
Software Engineer at Dell EMC.
“Hobbes : un modèle de liaison de références
Standardisation Manager at Nokia.
“Larchant: Persistence by Reachability in Distributed
Shared Memory through Garbage Collection”, 1996.
Senior researcher at INESC, and Associate Professor at IST Lisbon.
“Adaptation des systèmes de stockage aux besoins des
utilisateurs : l'approche micro-systèmes de stockage et sa
mise en œuvre dans BOSS”, 1995.
Self-employed web developer and translator.
“Ramasse-miettes réparti et gestion de références dans le
système à objets SOUL”, 1994.
Product Manager Orchestration at Airbus DS Government
co-advised with Ira Pohl.
“Type-Specific Storage Management”, 1993.
Sr Director Software Systems Engineering at Broadcom.
“Kitlog : un service de journalisation générique”,
Technical director for
standardisation at Alcatel-Lucent France. Deceased, 2017.
“Outils pour la programmation d'objets fragmentés”,
R&D Program Leader at Orange Labs.
“Gestion d'objets et migration dans les systèmes
“Protocoles de communication et programmation par objets : l'exemple de SOS”, 1989. Chargé de
Recherche at Inria.
- Faux amis : common French-English mis-translations or
errors. PDF, Numbers.
- Housing in Paris for visiting researchers, students and interns.
- Links about myself:
- Systems research in Europe:
- BibTeX files:
My place of work and team:
My main affiliation is Inria:
- My hikes
Art: Nat Mayer Shapiro, my
Exposes at Galerie
Saphir in Paris.
- Climbing (in Fontainebleau or cliffs),
ski-mountaineering (AKA randonnée ski),
cross-country skiing, nordic skiing,
bicycling, mountain bike: see
- Escalade (escalade Fontainebleau, escalade falaise, escalade mur),
ski de montagne (dit aussi ski de randonnée, ski de rando, ski alpinisme,
ski de raid, ou ski de printemps),
ski de fond (ski nordique, raquettes, randonnée en raquettes),
randonnée (randonnée pedestre, marche sportive),
vélo (cyclotourisme, randonnée en vélo),
VTT (vélo tous terrains, randonnée VTT, raid VTT) : voir
Laboratoire LIP6, Sorbonne-Université.
|Boîte Courrier 169|
4, place Jussieu
|75252 Paris Cedex 05|
|Tel.: +33 1 4427 7093 |
|Home page: http://lip6.fr/Marc.Shapiro/.|
|E-mail: <MARC dot SHAPIRO atsign ACM dot ORG>
(plain-text please; attachments in plain text or PDF only).
(Refer to 3D perspective view of campus, below.)
Immediately after entering campus, turn left towards door marked
On Floor 2, leaving the street to your right, take door marked "26-00".
My office is 211, on the left-hand side.
If any of the doors is locked, dial 7-7093 from the phone at 2nd
floor entrance, or call +33 1 4427 7093 from your mobile phone.
Last modified: Tue Dec 1 11:52:00 CET 2015